New in version 1.1.4

Sorry, Linux users - you have to do a little bit more than Windows/Mac users: look here.
It makes sense to first go there and know what is needed ;-)

The following is for all

Here is a list of current bugs and requests and possible workarounds

… and this is a list of things already fixed

Version 1.1.4 has features only planned for version 2, which seems to need some more time to get ready ;-)

A summary of major aspects:

  • Java-only most of the stuff implemented in C++ up to version 1.1.3 is now at Java level.
  • OpenCV 3.4 the latest OpenCV version will now be used always. The needed stuff (Java classes and native library for Java support will be bundled or at least available for download).
  • Text and OCR features are now implemented using the Java library Tess4J (current latest version based on Tesseract 3.0.5). All Tesseract options will be available at the Java API level. The Text/OCR features are completely revised and augmented.
  • Transparency Images with transparent areas (called masks) are now supported for search (ignoring the parts of the rectangles being transparent). Features will be available to create masks and masked images.
  • App class revised the implementation is now more robust and has some enhancements.
  • Android support via adb platform-tool is reimplemented - please read.
  • setup no longer needed You just download the IDE or API pack and simply start using it.

With the IDE for Jython and/or JRuby support an additional download is needed, since JavaScript support is not yet fully available.

  • the IDE is a little bit revised and already got / will get some enhancements

The new SikuliX Download page, where you can get more info and the needed stuff

Revision of the image find API

To support all features both for image and text search, the text search now has its own function set, whose behavior is the same as for image search, except, that a given text is directly taken as the text to be searched and not checked for a possible image file.

The old behavior of find(someText) is now switched off in the standard, but can be switched on by intention (Settings.SwitchToText). But if switched on, the ImageMissing feature is not available. In doubt it is recommended, to change the function calls to their text equivalents, if text search is the intention.

How to read the following tables:

In the 1st column you have the function names to be used as function(parameter1, parameter2, ...). About more details see the function description itself.

In all cases, these functions return a Match object as result, which is null/None if not found.

  • repeats-search yes means, that the search is continued until either the image/text appears in the search region or until the standard/given waiting time is exceeded (which means a FindFailed). no means, that only one search is performed with the content of the search region at that moment (meaning either found or not found).
  • throws-FindFailed yes means, that in case of not found (also for elapsed waiting time), a FindFailed exception is thrown, which leads to script/program termination, if not handled somehow. no means, that the function silently returns null/None, which must be checked if relevant. About handling FindFailed cases read more here.
image-function repeats-search throws-FindFailed
find no yes
wait yes yes
exists yes no
has yes no
waitVanish yes no
findChanges no no

has is a convenience wrapper for exists and intended to be used in logical expressions (if, while, …) since it returns true in case of found and false otherwise. To get the match in case of found use getLastMatch().

findChanges The feature look-for-changes is already known from the observe feature onChange. The new find variant compares two images (must have exactly the same size) and returns a list of the areas, that are different in the second image (for details see the function description in class Finder).

Revision of the text find API

The equivalent functions that definitely look for the given text are named xxxText. There is also a shortcut set named only xxxT. This might be helpful, when migrating to the new function set for text search: use the xxxT version for replacements and xxxText for fresh implementations - or vice versa.

Be aware other than the image search functions, the text search functions search from top left to bottom right. So if there is more than one possible match in a region, always the top left match is found. With image search it is still so, that it cannot be foreseen, which of the possible matches is returned as the result. In doubt you have to use the functions, that return all matches in a region and then filter the result to your needs.

text-function repeats-search throws-FindFailed
findText no yes
waitText yes yes
hasText no no
existsText yes no
waitVanishText this function is not available yet
And there are new text functions, that only search once and do not throw findFailed:
  • findWord("a word") looks for a word, whose text can be a regular expression
  • findLine("some text") looks for and returns the line, that contains the text (might be a regular expression)

For details see the function descriptions.

Revision of the findAll feature

All findAll variants only search once and do not throw a FindFailed. If nothing was found, you have to check the result for being empty (not found) or not being empty. How to do that, depends on the function variant.

As with the find functions there are also findAllText and findAllT for the text only findAll functions. The resulting list contain the matches in order top left to bottom right.

The function findAll returns a so called Match-Iterator (Java: Iterator<Match>), that reveals its content by the two methods hasNext() (true if still some matches available or false) and next() (return the next match in the row). The function next is greedy in that it removes the returned match from the internally managed list of matches. So if you wanted a list, you always had to insert a step, that collects the matches into a list first. The order of the resulting matches is still not predictable. They have to be sorted if needed.

Now there are function variants, that return match lists instead (Java: List<Match>). For empty or not you have to check the size/length of the list, that is 0 when empty (not found):

# these return an Iterator of matches
result = findAll("image")
result.hasNext() # True or False # the next match or null/None if no more match

# these return a list of matches
result = findAllList("image") # equivalent to findAll()
result = getAll("image") # shortcut for findAllList()
result = findAllByRow() # sorted along rows
result = findAllByColumn() # sorted along columns
result = findAllText("some text") # or findAllT()
result = findWords("a word") # like findWord() but returns all matches in the region
result = findLines("some text") # like findLine() but returns all matches in the region

# these return a list of words or lines in the region top left to bottom right
result = collectWords();
result = collectLines();

For details see the function description itself.

Be Aware Since version 1.1.2 there are also functions, that search for more than one image at the same time

# find the best matching pattern of the given list of patterns
result = findBest(pattern, pattern, pattern, ...) # var-arg parameterlist
result = findBestList(List<patterns>) # a list of patterns

# find all matching patterns in the list
result = findAny(pattern, pattern, pattern, ...) # var-arg parameterlist
result = findAnyList(List<patterns>) # a list of patterns

For details see the function description itself.

Revision of the text and OCR feature

The features are still supported by the library Tesseract OCR. Until version 1.1.3 the usage of the library was implemented via a C++ interface and the available features based on Tesseract 2.x have not changed for the last 6 years.

Now the Java library Tess4j is used, that allows to use the Tesseract features at the Java level. Internally it depends on Tesseract 3.x, that has some great improvements against Tesseract 2.x according to flexibility and accuracy. Additionally you will have full access to all options available with Tesseract.

All SikuliX text features are currently used with the standard settings. Before the images are given to Tesseract, SikuliX tries to optimize them according to the rules of Tesseract. Currently based on the screen’s resolution in DPI, the image is only enlarged to somewhere between 200 DPI and 300 DPI. Additional optimizations might be added in the future, including options available to the user at runtime, depending on the experiences made with the text features.

If you want to know anything about the features available through Tess4J/Tesseract, you have to dive into the details on the respective home pages of the packages.

Be aware The documentation of these packages is in a very basic stage with not much structure and little information that focuses on usage. So to dive into these docs only makes sense, if you really want to do special things or are not satisfied with the results you get with the SikuliX features.

Request bugs for new features and/or revision/augmentation of existing ones are welcome.

In the standard SikuliX runs the text features with the english language set, which is bundled with SikuliX. It is possible to add more languages to your SikuliX setup and switch between the installed languages at runtime.

It is possible to directly access the Tesseract API through Tess4j (as SikuliX does it).

The Tesseract training features are currently not available in SikuliX directly, but you may add traineddata stuff to your SikuliX environment and activate it with the respective Tesseract options.

For detailed information and usage examples look here.

System specific aspects

For Mac and Windows the needed native libraries are bundled with SikuliX. Since I am testing with macOS 10.13 and Windows 10, there might well be problems with prior system versions, that can be reported but might not be solved ;-)

Linux users have to look at the gory details in the special chapter below.

Lessons learned

  • Windows: Ensure you have latest Visual C++ Redistributable Pack (>=2013) installed

Using images with transparent parts (masked images)

SikuliX now accepts images (PNG format only) that are partly transparent. This allows to search for images on varying backgrounds and/or for images, whose content partly varies and should be ignored.

This is possible with a variant of the OpenCV matchTemplate() feature, that allows to specify a mask as additional parameter. This mask has the same size in pixels as the image itself. All pixels that have a 0 in the mask are ignored in the search.

SikuliX internally creates a mask from the transparency information in the image. All pixels having a transparency of 100% (opacity is 0%) are ignored (will be 0 in the mask).

Additionaly the Pattern now has features to specify images with the same size in pixels as the base image with black areas, that are interpreted as transparent areas to create a mask accordingly.

SikuliX does not have features yet to create images with transparency nor mask images with black areas. To create such images you have to use respective tools from the world of image handling or photo editing.

Example on Mac Open an image in the Preview app. Use one of the selection tools to select an area that should be fully transparent and simply click backspace to delete the area. These steps might be repeated. The image will automatically be a PNG file with an alpha-channel (the transparency information).

There is a tutorial: Working with masked images (ignoring parts of the image)

App class revised

For details look into the function descriptions at App.

  • App.focus and App.close() now check, wether the app is still running (might have been closed manually meanwhile or simply crashed)
  • there is a new App.closeByKey(), that tries to get the app to front and then use the system specific key combination (Alt-F4, cmd-Q, ctrl-Q) to gracefully close the application, which might not always be accomplished using the normal App.close().
  • and App.close() now have an optional parameter, to specify the maximum number of seconds to wait for the completion of the request.
  • App.toString() (scripting: print myApp) now checks the internal state of the app and hence shows its actual state.
  • the logging verbosity is reduced to error situations, but can be raised with Debug.on(3).

New and revised features in the IDE